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ECG Mnemonics

By : Dr. Subrahmanyam Karuturi

> ST elevation ELEVATION
Electrolytes, LBBB, Early Repolarization, Ventricular hypertrophy, Aneurysm, Treatment (eg
Injury (AMI, contusion), Osborne waves (hypothermia), Non-occlusive
vasospasm (prinzmetal’s)


> Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension

  > ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
Treatments [digoxin]


> EKG: 12 lead EKG quick interpretation of V1-V6 SSAALL:
· Elevations matched with their classic location of MI:
V1 Septal
V2 Septal
V3 Anterior
V4 Anterior
V5 Lateral
V6 Lateral


 > Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS":
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.


> Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine


> ECG: left vs. right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW":
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
· Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.


 > ST elevation causes in ECG ELEVATION:
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm


> Einthoven's Triangle: organization Corners are at RA (right arm), LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [eg LL is ++].
Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [eg LL-LA is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signs; positive angle hemisphere contains only positive signs.


> Dominant R wave in V1 WORD
WPW, Old MI, RBBB, Dextrocardia



More Cardiology Mnemonics


Cardiac Anatomy Mnemonics Arrhythmias Mnemonics
Cardiac Embryology Mnemonics Valvular Heart Disease Mnemonics
Cardiac Physiology Mnemonics Cardiomyopathy Mnemonics
Cardiac Pharmacology Mnemonics Pericardial Diseases Mnemonics
Cardiac Physical Diagnosis Mnemonics Infective Endocarditis Mnemonics
ECG Mnemonics Hypertension Mnemonics
Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Mnemonics Deep Vein Thrombosis Mnemonics
Diseases of the Aorta Mnemonics Cardiac Rheumatology Mnemonics
Heart Failure Mnemonics Miscellaneous Cardiology Mnemonics
Congenital Heart Disease Mnemonics 

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